The Will of Wynflaed

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MSS: British Library Cotton Ch. viii. 38; Sawyer number - S 1539
(date: between 978 and 1014*)

Key:
where a verb translates into more than one Modern English word these are shown in [ ]
{ } indicates words not in the Old English text - the Anglo-Saxons had a habit of leaving out small words, like 'the', etc
. . ., ' ' and [] in the Old English text indicates where parts of the original manuscript are missing or the letters have been assumed
< indicates where that word should be in front of the previous word - the Anglo-Saxons sometimes changed the word order around, the sense of what was being said would be indicated by the word endings.

Old English
Modern English
Wynflæd cýð hú hió wile ymbe þæt hió hæfð ofer hyre dæg
Wynflad proclaims how she wishes [to dispose of] that she haveth [at the end of] her lifetime.
hió becwiþ intó cyrcan hyre ofring... u 7 hyre beteran ofr'i'ngsceát 7 hyre róde she bequeathes to {the} church her offering . . . u and her better offering-sheet and her crucifix
7 intó béodern híwun twá selefrene cuppan and to {the} refectory community two silver cups
7 hyre tó sáulsceatte âlcon godes þéowe mancos
go[ld]es
and her <for soul-payment each {of} God's servants {a} mancos {of} gold
7 bútan þám Ceolðryþe i mancus 7 Oðelbryhte 7 Else 7 Æþel...þe and [in addition] for Ceolthrythe 1 mancus and Othelbryhte and Else and Athel . . . the
7 án pund tó Wiltune þám híwum 7 Fugele ánne mancus and one pound for Wilton [for the] community and Fugele one mancus
7 hió becwið Æðelflæde hyre dehter hyre ágrafenan béah and she bequeathes {to} Athelflade her daughter her [engraved, inscribed] [ring (as ornament or as money), bracelet]
7 'hyre mentelpréon' 7 þæt land æt Ebbelesburnan and 'her mantle-pin' and the estate at Ebbesborne
7 þá bóc on éce yrfe tó átéonne swá hyre léofosð sy and the title-deed in perpetual inheritance for [disposing of] as her favour is
7 hió [án h]yre þára manna 7 þæs yrfes and she grants her the men and the cattle
7 ealles þæs þe þær þenne on bið bútan þæt man scel for hyre sáulle þârof dón âgþer ge an mannon ge an yrfe and all {of} that where extent given <is except that they shall for her soul thereof bestow either in men or in cattle
7 æt Ceorlatune hió hyre án ealswá þere manna 7 þæs yrfes b[út]an þám fréotmannon and at Charlton she her <grant also the men and the cattle except the freedmen
7 þæt man finde of þám yrfe æt Ceorlatun[e healfes] pundes wyrþne sáulsceat tó Mylenburnan and that they provide from the cattle at Charlton half {a} pound's worth soul-payment for Milborne
7 healfes pundes wyrþne sáulscet fram Cinnuc tó Gyfle and half {a} pound's worth soul-payment from Chinnock for Yeovil
7 Eadmære þæt land æt C[ol]les[h]ylle 7 æt Inggeneshamme and {to} Eadmare the estate at Coleshill and at Inglesham
7 hió án him éac þæs landes æt Faccancu[mbe þe] hyre morgengyfu wes his dæg and she grants {to} him also the estates at Faccombe which her morning-gift <<was {for} his lifetime
7 ofer his dæg gyf Æþelflæd leng lybbe þonne he þonne fó hió tó þám lande æt Faccancumbe and [at the end of] his lifetime if Athelflad longer <lives than he then receive she for the estate at Faccombe
and ofer hyre dæ[g g]á hit eft an Eadwoldes hand and [at the end of] her lifetime go it anew into Eadwold's possesion
7 gif god wille þæt Eadwold weorþe tó þám
ge[w]exen a'n' his fæder dæge þæt he land healdan mæge
and if God wishes that Eadwold capable for that grown in his father's lifetime that he estate to hold [is able]
þene bid ic Eadmær þæt hé him læte þára twéga landa óþer tó oþþe æt Colleshyll[e] oð æt
Ead[b]urggebyrig
then bid I Eadmar that he him [let (on lease)] the two estates [one of] for either at Coleshill or at Adderbury
7 ofer his dæg búta and [at the end of] his lifetime both
7 hió wile þæt man finde æt Inggenesham[me h]ealfes. pundes wyrþ'n'e sáulsceat tó Waneting for hy 7 æt Colleshylle and she wishes that they provide at Inglesham half {a} pound's worth soul-payment for Wantage [for the sake of] her and at Coleshill
7 finde man of þám yrfe .LX. pene'g'ga wyrð tó S'c'rifenanhamme LX. tó Colleshylle .LX. tó Cillariðe and provide them from the cattle 60 pennies worth for Shrivenham 60 for Coleshill 60 for Childrey
7 fréoge man Wulfware folgyge þám þe hyre
leofo[st sy...]
ttryðe ealswá
and free one Wulfware {to} follow whoever her favourite is . . . ttrythe also
7 fréoge man Wulfflæde on þæt gerád þæt hió folgige Æþelflæde 7 Eadgyfe and free one Wulfflade on the condition that she follow Athelflade and Eadgyfe
7 hió becwið Eadgyfe áne crencestran 7 áne
sem[estra]n
oþer hátte Edgyfu oþer hátte Æþelyfu
and she bequeath {to} Eadgyfe one [female crank-worker] and one seamstress the one called Edgyfu the other called Athelyfu
7 fréoge man 'Gerburge' 7 Miscin 7 Hi...l 7 Burhulfes dohtur æt C[in]nuc and free one 'Gerburge' and Miscin and Hi . . . l and Burhulf's daughter at Chinnock
7 Ælfsige 7 his wíf 7 his yldran dohtor 7 Ceolstanes wíf and Alfsige and his wife and his elder daughter and Ceolstan's wife
7 æt Ceorlatune fréoge man Pifus 7 Edwyn
... 7 ...n
wíf
and at Charlton free one Pifus and Edwyn . . . and . . .'s wife
7 æt Faccancumbe frioge man Edelm 7 Man 7 Iohannan 7 'Sprow 7 his wíf' 7 En.f... 7 Gersande 7 'Snel' and at Faccombe free one Edelm and Man and Johanna and 'Sprow and his wife' and En . f . . . and Gersande and 'Snel'
7 æt Colleshylle fréoge man Æþelgyþe 7 Bican wíf and at Coleshill free one Athelgythe and Bica's wife
7 Æffan 7 B[e]dan 7 Gurhannes wíf 7 fréoge man Wulfware swystor Byrhsigis wí[f] and Aff's and Bed's and Gurhann's wife and free one Wulfware sister Byrhsigis wife
7 ....... þysne wyrhtan 7 'Wulfgyþe Ælfswyþe dohtor' and . . . . . . . . the wrights and 'Wulfgythe Alfswithe daughter'
7 gif þâr hwylc wíteþéow 'man' sy bútan þyson þe hió geþeowede hió gelyf'ð' and if there any [reduced to slavery by the law] 'person' <<be besides those who she enslaved she trusts
tó hyre bearnon þæt hi 'h'ine willon lyhtan for hyre sáulle to her children that they him will relieve for her soul
7 Ælfwolde hyre twégen wesendhornas 7 án hors 7 hyre ré'a'de ge[t]eld and {to} Alfwolde her two [bison's horns] and a horse and her red tent
[7] hió becwyð Eadmære áne hlidfæsþe cuppan oþre Æðelflæde and she bequeath Eadmare one [closed by a lid] cup the other {to} Athelflade
7 bít þæt hi findon betweox him twá smicere scencingcuppan [i]nto béodern for hi and asks that they provide between them two drinking-cups [to the] refectory for them
oþþe hyre áhgene ieredan cuppan geiccon hy sy ...... an ánon punde (or, and) her own ornamented cups increased them are . . . . . . . . . . . . a single pound
þonne wolde hió þæt man dyde 'inn'on âgþere cuppan healf pund penega then would she that one placed within both cups half {a} pound [of} pennies
7 ágyfe man Eadwolde his ág[e]ne .II. sylerenan cuppan and [return to] one Edwolde his own 2 silver cups
7 hió becwið him hyre goldfágan tréowena[n] cuppan þæt hé ice his beah mid þám golde and she bequeathe him her [variegated or shining with gold] wooden cups that he increase his [ring (as ornament or as money), bracelet] with the gold
oþþe hi mon æt him gehweorfe mid .XVI. mancussum reades goldes swa micel þâr is tó gedong or it may by him [be turned] with 16 mancusses {of} red gold [just as] much there is to [put on it]
7 hió becwiþ him twá mýdrecan 7 þâraninnan án bedréaf eal þæt tó ánum bedde gebyreð and she bequeathe him two chests and therein grant {the} bedding all that to one bed belongs
7 á'g'yfe Eadmær Eadwolde swá micel yrfe 7 swá fela manna swá... him âr æt Hafene becwæð and [give up] Eadmar {to} Eadwolde as much cattle and as many men as . . . him before at Avon {was} bequeathed
7 [h]é his fæder syððan swá hé wille and he his father afterwards as he will
7 be þan lande æt Cinnuc hit ágon þa híwan æt Sceaftesbyrig ofer hyre dæg and concerning the estate at Chinnock it [shall go to] the community at Shaftesbury [at the end of] her lifetime
7 hió áh þæt yrfe 7 þa men þenne án hió þan hywum þára gebúra þe on þám gafollande sittað and she owns the cattle and the men then grants she [to the] community the [dwellers, husbandmen, farmers, countrymen] who on the [leased land, land let for rent or services] sit
7 þera þeowra manna hió án hyre syna dehter Eadgyfe and the [not free] people she grants her son's daughter Eadgyfe
7 þæs yrfes bútan þám sáulsceatte þe man tó Gifle syllan sceal and the cattle except the soul-payment that they for Yeovil appointed owed
7 hió wile þæt man læte on þan lande standan .VI. ox's'an 7 .IIII. cý mid féower cealfon and she wishes that they [allow to remain] on the estate to stand 6 oxen and 4 cows with four calves
7 of [þá]m þéowan mannan æt Cinnuc hió becwið Eadwolde Ceolstan Etstanes sunu and from the [not free] people at Chinnock she bequeathe {to} Eadwolde Ceolstan Etstan's son
7 Æffan sunu 7 Burhwynne Mærtin 7 Hisfig and Aff's son and Burhwynne Martin and Hisfig
7 hió becwiþ Ead[gy]fe þârángean Ælfsige þene cóc and she bequeathe Eadgyfe [there in exchange for] Alfsige the cook
7 Ælfware Burgan dohtor 7 Herestan 7 his wíf 7 Ecelm 7 his wíf 7 hiora cild and Alfware Burg's daughter and Herestan and his wife and Ecelm and his wife and their child
7 Cynestan 7 Wynsige 7 Byrhtrices sunu 7 Edwynne 7 Buneles sunu 7 Ælfferer dohtor and Cynestan and Wynsige and Byrhtric's son and Edwynne and Bunel's son and Alffer's daughter
7 hió becwið Æðelf[læde] Elhhelmmes dehter Ælfferes dohtor 'þa geonran' and she bequeathe {to} Athelflade Elhhelmm's daughter Alffer's daughter 'the younger'
7 hyre twilibrocenan cyrtel 7 oþerne linnenne oþþe linnenweb and her twilibrocenan dress and another [of linen] or linen-cloth
7 Eadgyfe twá mýdrecan 7 þâranin[n]an hyre be't'sþe bedwáhrift 7 linnenne rúwan and {to} Eadgyfe two chests and therein her best bed-[tapestry, curtain] and [of linen] [covering, tapestry]
7 eal þæt bedréf þe þârtó gebyreð and all the bedding that [to it] belongs
7 . . . hyre betstan dunnan tunecan and . . . her best [dun, dingy brown, bark-coloured, a colour partaking of brown and black] [under-garment, tunic, coat]
7 hyre 'beteran' mentel 7 hyre twá tr'é'owenan gesplottude cuppan and her better mantle and her two wooden spotted cups
7 hyre ealdan gewíredan préon is an .VI. mancussum. and her old [made of wire; ornamented] pin is allowed 6 mancuses.
7 sylle man hyre .IIII. mancussas of hyre sá...... bége and give [one, people, they] her 4 mancuses from her soul-payment . . . both
7 án lang healwáhrift 7 oþer sceort 7 þrío sethrægl and one long hall-[tapestry, curtain] and another short and three seat-cloth
7 hió án Ceolðryþe hyre blácena tunecena swá þer hyre léofre béo and she grant Ceolthrythe her [bleached, whitened] [under-garments, tunics, coats] whichever there her favourite be
7 hyre be't'sð háliryft 7 hyre betsþan bindan and her best holy-[covering, veil, curtain, cloak] and her best headband
[7 Æþelf]læder þisse Hwitan hyre cincdáðenan cyrtel 7 cuffian 7 bindan and {to} Athelflader the White her cincdáðenan dress and [cowl, hood] and head-band
7 finde Æðelflæd syþþan án hyre nun's'crúde loce hwæt hió betsð mæge Wulfflæde 7 Æþelgife and provide Athelflad afterwards grant her nun-[ 1. dress, clothing, attire; 2. an article of dress, garment, vestment] settlement what she best is able {to} Wulfflade and Athelgife
7 ice mid golde þæt hyra âgþer hyru hæbbe.LX. peneng[a wyr]þ and increase with gold that they each [at least] have 60 pennies worth
7 Ceolwynne 7 Edburge þæt sy .XXX. penega wyrþ and {for} Ceolwynne and Edburge that is 30 pennies worth
7 þâr synt twá micle myd'e'rcan 7 án hræglcysð 7 án lýtulu tówmýderce and there are two great chests and one [dress, clothing; vestment; cloth, sheet; armor; sail]-chest and one little spinning-chest
7 éac twá ealde mýdercan and also two old [money storing places, chests]
þenne án hió Æþelflæde on âlcum þingum þe þâr unbecweden bið which grants she {to} Athelflade within every thing that there unbequeathed be
on bócum 7 án swilcum lytlum 7 hió gelyfð [þ]æt hió wille hyre sáulle geþencan including books and in such little {things} and she trusts that she will her soul [be mindful of]
7 þâr synt éac wáhriftu sum þe hyre wyrðe bið and there are also [tapestries, curtains] some that {for} her worthy be
7 þá læstan hió mæg syllan hyre wimmannon and the least she may give her women
7 hió becwið Cynelufe hyre dâl þera wildera horsa þe mid Eadmære's' synt and she bequeathe Cynelufe her share {of} the wild horses that with Eadmar's are
7 hió án Æþelflede hyre hy...ppe 7 þára andlúmena 7 ealra þera getâsa þet þârbinnan beoð and grants Athelflede her . . . . and the [utensils, implements, tools, vessels] and all the [useful things] that therein be
7 éac ðæs worþiges gif his hyre sé cing án swá swá Eadweard cing âr his Byrhtwynne hyre méder geuþe and also the [enclosed homestead, curtilage, farm] if he {to} her the king grants just as Eadweard king before him {to} Byrhtwynne her mother granted
7 hæbbe Eadwold 7 his sweostor hyre taman hors g[e]'mæn' ...t his ágene tóforan. and have Eadwold and his sister her tame horse [in common] . . . he [to own] besides.

 

There now follows my analysis of the will:

Wynflæd's Family
Æðelflæd(e)

her daughter

  • her [engraved, inscribed] [ring (as ornament or as money), bracelet]
  • 'her mantle-pin'
  • the estate at Ebbesborne; the title-deed in perpetual inheritance for [disposing of] as she wishes; the men and the cattle; and all of that except what they give for her soul-payment
  • at Charlton the men and the cattle except the freedmen
  • if she is still alive when Eadmær(e) dies - the estate at Faccombe
  • the other [closed by a lid] cup
  • (with Eadmær(e)) provide two drinking-cups [to the] refectory
  • two great chests
  • one [dress, clothing; vestment; cloth, sheet; armor; sail]-chest
  • one little spinning-chest
  • two old chests
  • everything that is unbequeathed within (the chests) including books and other little things
  • [tapestries, curtains] some that {for} her worthy be and the least she may give her women
  • the [utensils, implements, tools, vessels]
  • all the [useful things] that therein be
  • the [enclosed homestead, curtilage, farm] - if the king (William of Normandy or Harold of Wessex) grants it just as Eadweard (the Confessor) king before him granted it to her mother Byrhtwynne
Eadmær(e)

her son

  • the estate at Coleshill
  • the estate at Inglesham
  • the estates at Faccombe which her morning-gift was for his lifetime
  • one [closed by a lid] cup
  • (with Æðelflæd(e)) provide two drinking-cups [to the] refectory
  • (to Eadwold(e)) as much cattle and as many men as he was bequeathed at Avon
Eadwold(e)

son of Eadmær(e), her grand-son

  • the estates at Faccombe when Æðelflæd(e) dies
  • if he grows to become capable of holding estates in his father (Eadmær(e))'s lifetime Eadmær(e) is to lease him either Coleshill or Adderbury; and when Eadmær(e) dies - both
  • return his own 2 silver cups
  • her [variegated or shining with gold] wooden cups that he increase his [ring (as ornament or as money), bracelet] with the gold or 16 mancuses of red gold (it is worth that much)
  • two chests and therein the bedding - all that to one bed belongs
  • (from Eadmær(e)) as much cattle and as many men as he (Eadmær(e)) was bequeathed at Avon
  • (from the 'not free' people at Chinnock) Ceolstan Etstan's son, Æff's son, Burhwynne Martin, Hisfig
  • (with Eadgyfe) her tame horse [in common]
Eadgyfe

daughter of Eadmær(e), her grand-daughter

  • a [female crank-worker] called Edgyfu
  • a seamstress called Æþelyfu
  • the [not free] people (at Chinnock) except Ceolstan Etstan's son, Aff's son, Burhwynne Martin, Hisfig
  • the cattle (at Chinnock) except the soul-payment for Yeovil
  • (in exchange for the 'not free' at Chinnock given to Eadwold(e)) Ælfsige the cook, Ælfware Burg's daughter, Herestan and his wife, Ecelm and his wife and their child, Cynestan, Wynsige, Byrhtric's son, Edwynne, Bunel's son, Ælffer's daughter
  • two chests and therein her best bed-[tapestry, curtain] and [of linen] [covering, tapestry] and all the bedding that belongs thereto
  • her best [dun, dingy brown, bark-coloured, a colour partaking of brown and black] [under-garment, tunic, coat]
  • her better mantle
  • her two wooden spotted cups
  • her old [made of wire; ornamented] pin which is worth 6 mancuses
  • 4 mancuses?
  • one long hall-[tapestry, curtain]
  • another short (hall-[tapestry, curtain])
  • three seat-cloth
  • (with Eadwold(e)) her tame horse [in common]
Byrhtwynne
her mother

 

Misc.
Æþelgife

(from Æþelflæder the White) the best of her nun's-clothing to be increased with gold to the value of 60 pennies worth

Ceolwynne
30 pennies worth
Edburge
Cynelufe

her share {of} the wild horses that with Eadmær(e)'s are

Eadweard
the king (Edward the Confessor - b. 1003: reigned from 1042: d. 4 Jan 1066)
Ælfwolde
  • her two [bison's horns]
  • a horse
  • her red tent
Æðelflæde (who is) Elhhelmm's daughter
  • Ælffer's daughter 'the younger'
  • her twilibrocenan dress and another of linen or linen-cloth
Ceolðryþe
  • a mancos of gold
  • her [bleached, whitened] [under-garments, tunics, coats] whichever there her favourite be
  • her best holy-[covering, veil, curtain, cloak]
  • her best headband
Oðelbryhte
a mancos of gold
Else
Æþel...þe
Fugele
For Wilton for the community
one pound
for Milborne
from the cattle at Charlton half {a} pound's worth soul-payment
for Yeovil
half {a} pound's worth soul-payment from Chinnock
for Wantage
  • provide at Inglesham half {a} pound's worth soul-payment
  • the same at Coleshill
for Shrivenham
from the cattle 60 pennies worth
for Coleshill
60
for Childrey
60
Coleshill
any [reduced to slavery by the law] 'person' left who she enslaved she trusts to her children to release
to the community at Shaftesbury
the estate at Chinnock
[to the] community
(?at Chinnock) the [dwellers, husbandmen, farmers, countrymen] who on the [leased land, land let for rent or services] sit
at Chinnock
[allow to remain] on the estate to stand 6 oxen and 4 cows with four calves


Religious Community
Æþelflæder the White

possibly a nun

  • her cincdáðenan dress
  • [cowl, hood]
  • head-band
    (providing she give the best of her nun's-clothing to Wulfflæde and Æþelgife)
to the church
her offering ? and her better offering-sheet and her crucifix
to the refectory community
two silver cups
to the refectory
  • two drinking-cups (from Eadmær(e) and Æðelflæd(e))
  • (and, or) her own ornamented cups increased with a single pound within both cups half {a} pound [of} pennies
to each of God's servants for soul-payment
a mancos of gold

 

Servants
Wulfware
freed to follow whom she pleases
. . . ttryðe
Wulfflæde
  • freed on condition that she follow Æþelflæde and Eadgyfe
  • (from Æþelflæder the White) the best of her nun's-clothing to be increased with gold to the value of 60 pennies worth
Edgyfu
a female 'crank-worker'
  • bequeathed to Eadgyfe daughter of Eadmær(e) and Wynflæd's grand-daughter
Æþelyfu
a seamstress
  • bequeathed to Eadgyfe daughter of Eadmær(e) and Wynflæd's grand-daughter
'Gerburge'
at Chinnock
  • to be freed
Miscin
Hi . . . l
Burhulf's daughter
Ceolstan (who is) Etstan's son

at Chinnock

  • bequeathed to Eadwold(e) son of Eadmær(e) and Wynflæd's grand-son
Aff's son
Burhwynne Martin
Hisfig
Ælfsige and his wife and his elder daughter

possibly at Chinnock?

  • to be freed
Ceolstan's wife
Æþelgyþe

at Coleshill

  • to be freed
Bica's wife
Æff's and Bed's and Gurhann's wife
Wulfware's sister (who is) Byrhsigis wife
or
Wulfware (the) sister (of) Byrhsigis wife
the wrights
'Wulfgyþe (who is) Ælfswyþe daughter'
Pifus

at Charlton

  • to be freed
Edwyn
. . .'s wife
Edelm

at Faccombe

  • to be freed
Man
Johanna
'Snel'
En . f . . .
Gersande
'Sprow and his wife'
Ælfsige the cook
  • bequeathed to Eadgyfe daughter of Eadmær(e) and Wynflæd's grand-daughter (in exchange for the 'not free' at Chinnock given to Eadwold(e))
Ælfware (who is) Burg's daughter
Herestan and his wife
Ecelm and his wife and their child
Cynestan
Wynsige
Byrhtric's son
Edwynne
Bunel's son
Ælffer's daughter
Ælffer's daughter 'the younger'
  • bequeathed to Æðelflæde (who is) Elhhelmm's daughter
the 'not free' people at Chinnock
  • bequeathed to Eadgyfe daughter of Eadmær(e) and Wynflæd's grand-daughter

 

Faccancumbe
( Faccombe - Hampshire)
her morning-gift

This was a payment made by a bridegroom to his bride, the purpose of which seems to have been to assure her financial independence within the marriage. The gift was made on the morning after the wedding, presumably conditional upon its successful consummation. Generally it seems to have comprised land or property with revenue generating potential. This gift was hers to keep, in her own right, for the rest of her life; neither divorce nor her husband's death could take it from her. She could give it away, sell it, or bequeath it, as she pleased.

bequeathed to Eadmær(e) (her son)
for life
bequeathed to Æðelflæd(e) (her daughter)
if she outlives Eadmær(e), for life
bequeathed to Eadwold(e) (her grand-son)
on Æðelflæd(e)s death
named servants to be freed
Edelm, Man, Johanna, 'Sprow and his wife', Enefætte, Gersande, 'Snel'

 

Colleshylle
( Coleshill - Oxfordshire)
bequeathed to Eadmær(e) (her son)
leased to Eadwold(e) (her grand-son)
if he 'comes of age' and is capable of holding land in his own right while his father (Eadmær(e)) still lives (this or Adderbury)
bequeathed to Eadwold(e) (her grand-son)
on the death of his father
for Wantage
Wantage was the site of an Anglo-Saxon royal palace, the birth place of King Alfred, and Ethelred II held a council there in 990. It lay on crossroads linking it to Abingdon, Hungerford and the important Thames crossing at Wallingford. It remained a royal manor until the reign of Richard I, but its importance waned with the arrival of the Normans, and the palace was abandoned.
half a pound's worth soul-payment
from ?
60 pennies worth of cattle
named servants to be freed
Athelgythe, Bica's wife, Aff's and Bed's and Gurhann's wife, Wulfware sister Byrhsigis wife, the wrights and 'Wulfgythe Alfswithe daughter'
she trusts to her children to release any person 'reduced to slavery by law' whom she enslaved

 

Ebbelesburnan
( Ebbesborne Wake - Wiltshire)
bequeathed to Æðelflæd(e) (her daughter)

the title-deed in perpetual inheritance to do with as she pleases; the men and the cattle and everything except what is given as soul-payment.

 

Ceorlatune
( Charlton Horethorne - Somerset)
bequeathed to Æðelflæd(e) (her daughter)

the men and the cattle except the freedmen

for Milborne
probably one of the defensive 'burh's that King Edward planned as a protection against Danish attacks from the sea
noted for its parish church, which combines Anglo- Saxon detail and features with Norman work
there was also a mint there and many sceatta have been identified
half a pound's worth soul-payment in cattle

 

© Rosie Wilkin 2005
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